Purpose: We examined associations between family rejection and risk of suicide attempts and substance misuse among a national sample of transgender and gender nonconforming adults. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (N = 6456). This secondary analysis was restricted to 3458 individuals who self-identified as transgender or gender nonconforming and pro- vided complete data on study variables. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine health risks by level of reported family rejection (low/moderate/high), controlling for relevant sociodemographic characteris- tics. Results: Overall, 42.3% of the sample reported a suicide attempt and 26.3% reported misusing drugs or alcohol to cope with transgender-related discrimination. After controlling for age, race/ethnicity, sex assigned at birth, binary gender identity, income, education, and employment status, family rejection was associated with in- creased odds of both behaviors. Odds increased significantly with increasing levels of family rejection. Conclusions: Family rejection related to gender identity is an understudied interpersonal stressor that may neg- atively affect health outcomes for transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. A better understanding of the role of close relationships in both risk and resilience for transgender individuals is critical in the development of effective public health interventions for this community.
By Augustus Klein and Sarit A. Golub, 2016