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Humanities Law/Legal Nonfiction Social Sciences

Social stigma, legal and public health barriers faced by the third gender phenomena in Brazil, India and Mexico: Travestis, hijras and muxes

By Alessandra Diehl, Denise Leite Vieira, Marina Milograna Zaneti, Ana Fanganiello, Pratap Sharan, Rebecca Robles, Jair de Jesus Mari, 2017

Aim and methods: The aim of this article is to provide a narrative literature review of the ‘third gender’ phenomenon in Brazil ( Travestis), India ( Hijras) and Mexico ( Muxes), considering the social stigma, the legal and health aspects of these identities. Results: These three groups share similar experiences of stigmatisation, marginalisation, sexual abuse, HIV infection, infringement of civil rights and harassment accessing health services. Brazil, India and Mexico public services for the third gender conditions are still very scarce and inadequate for the heavy demand from potential users. Discussion and conclusion: Although all three countries have used legislation to promote provision of comprehensive healthcare services for third gender, there is still strong resistance to implementation of such laws and policies. Brazil, India and Mexico face a huge challenge to become countries where all human rights are respected. Keywords: Transgender; civil rights; health policy development; health services for transgender persons; social stigma.

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