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Classics History Humanities Law/Legal Natural Sciences Nonfiction Social Sciences Theory

The Transsexual Empire

By Janice G. Raymond, 1979

2023 update: Beacon has requested the takedown of this text. We no longer host the book and the link above will take you to a third-party website that provides links to other sites that do host it.

*We only share this virulently anti-trans text as a historical example of early TERF writing.


“Raymond investigates the role of transsexualism in society – particularly psychological and surgical approaches to it – and argues that transsexualism reinforces traditional gender stereotypes. Raymond also writes about the ways in which the medical-psychiatric complex is medicalizing gender identity and the social and political context that has helped spawn transsexual treatment and surgery as normal and therapeutic medicine. Raymond maintains that transsexualism is based on the “patriarchal myths” of “male mothering”, and “making of woman according to man’s image”. She claims this is done in order “to colonize feminist identification, culture, politics and sexuality”, adding: “All transsexuals rape women’s bodies by reducing the real female form to an artifact, appropriating this body for themselves …. Transsexuals merely cut off the most obvious means of invading women, so that they seem non-invasive.”

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